Monthly Archives: March 2020

AWS examples in C# – structured logging in .NET Core and AWS Lambda

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Post summary: Code examples of how to do structured logging in .NET Core and C# AWS Lambda.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository.

Structured logging

In the general case, log files are a big text file with no structure in it. This makes it hard to search and analyze log files. The idea of structured logging is to write log files into a given format, such as JSON or XML, so they can later be machine processed such search or big data analysis. In the current post, I will describe how to log in to JSON format. For e.g. one log entry is:

[12:17:16 INF] New Movie published with Die Hard, {"Title": "Die Hard", "Genre": "Action", "$type": "Movie"}

This is a simple text with the Movie object being input as JSON. In order to process it, a parser has to be implemented, which gets the data into the square brackets and extracts the date-time and the log level, then searching into the content itself is hard because it should be done with lots of regular expressions. With structured logging the same entity will look like this:

{
	"@t": "2020-03-29T10:21:24.2907688Z",
	"@mt": "New Movie published with {Title}, {@Content}",
	"Title": "Die Hard",
	"Content": {
		"Title": "Die Hard",
		"Genre": "Action",
		"$type": "Movie"
	},
	"SourceContext": "SqsWriter.Controllers.PublishController",
	"ActionId": "20de3310-ebce-48d5-8f9c-28914e199937",
	"ActionName": "SqsWriter.Controllers.PublishController.PublishMovie (SqsWriter)",
	"RequestId": "0HLUJPBNDGPSJ:00000001",
	"RequestPath": "/api/publish/movie",
	"SpanId": "|7bab219a-415f5c121e1756f5.",
	"TraceId": "7bab219a-415f5c121e1756f5",
	"ParentId": "",
	"ConnectionId": "0HLUJPBNDGPSJ"
}

There is much more data in the latter and it is also in JSON format which makes it easy to search with JsonPath.

JSON Path

JsonPath is a way to navigate into a JSON document, very similar to XPath for XML. With JSONPath Online Evaluator is easy to try some expressions. Both $.Content.Title and $.Title resolves to Die Hard. So it is very easy for a tool that understands the JsonPath to query logs where some JSON entity is related somehow to a given rule, for e.g. $.Title equals to Die Hard.

AWS CloudWatch

CloudWatch provides different monitoring functions, one of them is logging. By default, all AWS services log into CloudWatch. CloudWatch provides a feature called insights which is able to search into JSON log files.

Serilog

Serilog is a .NET library that provides logging capabilities. Its main benefits are that it can log into JSON format. Serilog can be very easily integrated into any C# project. Two Nuget packages are needed: Serilog and Serilog.AspNetCore.

Configure Serilog for .NET Core application

In the case of .NET Core microservice Serilog is injected into Program.cs.

using Serilog;
using Serilog.Events;
using Serilog.Formatting.Compact;

public static void Main(string[] args)
{
	Log.Logger = new LoggerConfiguration()
		.MinimumLevel.Debug()
		.MinimumLevel.Override("Microsoft", LogEventLevel.Warning)
		.Enrich.FromLogContext()
		.WriteTo.Console(new CompactJsonFormatter())
		.CreateLogger();

	var webHost = WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
		.UseStartup<Startup>()
		.UseSerilog()
		.UseUrls("http://*:5100")
		.Build();

	webHost.Run();
}

Configure Serilog for AWS C# Lambda function

In the case of C# lambda function, logging to console is enough, since all logs are sent to CloudWatch. I have created a proxy class called Logger, which instantiates an instance of Serilog logger. The custom logger is then used in lambda function itself.

Logger

public interface ILogger
{
	void LogInformation(string messageTemplate, params object[] arguments);
}

public class Logger : ILogger
{
	private static Serilog.Core.Logger _logger;

	public Logger()
	{
		_logger = new LoggerConfiguration()
			.MinimumLevel.Debug()
			.WriteTo.Console(new CompactJsonFormatter())
			.CreateLogger();
	}

	public void LogInformation(string messageTemplate, params object[] arguments)
	{
		_logger.Information(messageTemplate, arguments);
	}
}

MoviesFunction

private readonly ISqsWriter _sqsWriter;
private readonly IDynamoDbWriter _dynamoDbWriter;
private readonly ILogger _logger;

public MoviesFunction() : this(null, null, null) { }

public MoviesFunction(ISqsWriter sqsWriter, IDynamoDbWriter dynamoDbWriter, ILogger logger)
{
	_sqsWriter = sqsWriter ?? new SqsWriter();
	_dynamoDbWriter = dynamoDbWriter ?? new DynamoDbWriter();
	_logger = logger ?? new Logger();
}

public async Task MoviesFunctionHandler(DynamoDBEvent dynamoEvent, ILambdaContext context)
{
	foreach (var record in dynamoEvent.Records)
	{
		var title = record.Dynamodb.NewImage["Title"].S;
		var logEntry = new LogEntry
		{
			Message = $"Movie '{title}' processed by lambda",
			DateTime = DateTime.Now
		};
		_logger.LogInformation("MoviesFunctionHandler invoked with {Title}", title);

		await _sqsWriter.WriteLogEntryAsync(logEntry);
		await _dynamoDbWriter.PutLogEntryAsync(logEntry);
	}
}

GetMovie

public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> GetMovie(APIGatewayProxyRequest request, ILambdaContext context)
{
	var title = WebUtility.UrlDecode(request.PathParameters["title"]);
	_logger.LogInformation("GetMovie invoked with {Title}", title);

	var document = await _dynamoDbReader.GetDocumentAsync(TableName, title);
	if (document == null)
	{
		_logger.LogInformation("GetMovie produced no results for {Title}", title);
		return new APIGatewayProxyResponse { StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.NotFound };
	}

	var movie = new Movie
	{
		Title = document["Title"],
		Genre = (MovieGenre)int.Parse(document["Genre"])
	};
	_logger.LogInformation("GetMovie result is {Title}, {@Content}", movie.Title, movie);

	return new APIGatewayProxyResponse
	{
		StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.OK,
		Body = _jsonConverter.SerializeObject(movie)
	};
}

AWS CloudWatch Insights

CloudWatch Logs Insights enables interactive search and analyze log data in Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Queries can be performed to help more efficiently and effectively respond to operational issues. Queries are done in a specific purpose-built query language with a few simple but powerful commands. A short example is to search for all logs in which FirstName field equals Bruce. Before that all log groups that has to be searched are selected above.

fields @@mt
| sort @timestamp desc
| limit 20
| filter FirstName = 'Bruce'

An extensive guide on query language can be found on CloudWatch Logs Insights Query Syntax page.

Conclusion

Structured logging can bring a lot of benefits to debugging an application and analyzing its behavior. It is easy to set up and be used.

Related Posts

Read more...

AWS examples in C# – AWS CLI commands

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Post summary: Important AWS CLI commands used in AWS examples in C#.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository.

Introduction

In AWS examples in C# – run the solution post I have described how to install/uninstall current examples. In the current post, I am going to show in detail individual commands used. The configuration parameters in the command below will be given with capital letters and starting with a dollar sign, e.g. $CONFIGURATION_PARAMETER. Each AWS command has its code representation in the SDK for the desired programming language.

AWS Command Line Interface

The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage AWS services. Control of multiple AWS services from the command line and automate them through scripts can be done with just one tool to download and configure. The full list of services that can be controlled is listed in the AWS Command Line Interface reference page. Each service has a subpage with a list of all available commands. All commands return JSON as a response. In a subsequent post, I will describe how to manage the JSON in the command line. All operations in the current post are done after AWS credentials are set as environment variables:

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=KIA57FV4.....
export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=mSgsxOWVh...
export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-east-1

SQS operations

The full list can be found in aws sqs CLI reference page. More information about SQS can be found in AWS examples in C# – create a service working with SQS post.

Create

Initially, all queues are listed with list-queues, in order to check if the queue already exists.

aws sqs list-queues

The queue is created with create-queue command, the result of the command returns the queue URL.

aws sqs create-queue --queue-name $QUEUE_NAME

After queues are created, the re-drive policy has to be set up. The ARN of the dead-letter queue can be obtained with get-queue-attributes command by providing the queue URL.

aws sqs get-queue-attributes \
	--queue-url $DEAD_LETTER_QUEUE_URL \
	--attribute-names QueueArn

The re-drive policy is set with set-queue-attributes command.

aws sqs set-queue-attributes \
	--queue-url $QUEUE_URL \
	--attributes "{\"RedrivePolicy\":\"{\\\"maxReceiveCount\\\":\\\"3\\\",\\\"deadLetterTargetArn\\\":\\\"$DEAD_LETTER_QUEUE_ARN\\\"}\",\"ReceiveMessageWaitTimeSeconds\":\"$LONG_POLLING_TIMEOUT\"}"

Delete

In order to delete the queue, its URL is needed. The URL is obtained with get-queue-url command.

aws sqs get-queue-url --queue-name $QUEUE_NAME

Deletion happens with delete-queue command.

aws sqs delete-queue --queue-url $QUEUE_URL

DynamoDB operations

The full list can be found in aws dynamodb CLI reference page. More information about DynamoDB can be found in AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post.

Create

The table data is obtained with describe-table command.

aws dynamodb describe-table --table-name $TABLE_NAME

If the table does not exist, it is created with create-table command. The table command has all the data needed. See more about table attributes in AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post.

aws dynamodb create-table \
	--table-name $TABLE_NAME \
	--attribute-definitions 'AttributeName=FirstName,AttributeType=S' 'AttributeName=LastName,AttributeType=S' \
	--key-schema 'AttributeName=FirstName,KeyType=HASH' 'AttributeName=LastName,KeyType=RANGE' \
	--provisioned-throughput 'ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5' \
	--stream-specification 'StreamEnabled=true,StreamViewType=NEW_AND_OLD_IMAGES'

Delete

The table is deleted by name with delete-table command.

aws dynamodb delete-table --table-name $TABLE_NAME

IAM roles operations

The full list can be found in aws iam CLI reference page.

Create

Roles are listed with list-roles command to check if the role exists.

aws iam list-roles

The role is created with create-role command.

aws iam create-role \
	--role-name $ROLE_NAME \
	--assume-role-policy-document file://assume-role-policy-document.json

This is the only case in the current examples where an additional JSON document is needed alongside a command. It is not possible to pass this JSON inline as it is with aws sqs set-queue-attributes command. This JSON allows certain services to be accessed by this role.

{
	"Version": "2012-10-17",
	"Statement": [
		{
			"Effect": "Allow",
			"Principal": {
				"Service": [
					"lambda.amazonaws.com",
					"ec2.amazonaws.com",
					"ecs.amazonaws.com",
					"ecs-tasks.amazonaws.com",
					"batch.amazonaws.com"
				]
			},
			"Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
		}
	]
}

List policies to get the policy ARN with list-policies command. Basically, to make things easier, AdministratorAccess existing policy is used with its ARN.

aws iam list-policies

Attach the policy to the role with attach-role-policy command.

aws iam attach-role-policy \
	--role-name $ROLE_NAME \
	--policy-arn $POLICY_ARN

Delete

List policies with list-policies command to get the ARN, then detach the policy from the role.

aws iam detach-role-policy \
	--role-name $ROLE_NAME \
	--policy-arn $POLICY_ARN

After the policy is detached, role is deleted with delete-role command.

aws iam delete-role --role-name $ROLE_NAME

AWS Lambda operations

The full list can be found in aws lambda CLI reference page.

Create

List functions with list-functions command to check if the function exists.

aws lambda list-functions

Creating a function is done with create-function command and takes many arguments. Most of the parameters are self-explanatory. Timeout is important, the lambda function execution is suspended after the timeout passes, in current examples, it is 30 seconds, I found that cold start could take up to 15 seconds some times. The lambda configurations are described in AWS examples in C# – create basic Lambda function post.

aws lambda create-function \
	--function-name $FUNCTION_NAME \
	--runtime dotnetcore2.1 \
	--role $ROLE_ARN \
	--handler $HANDLER_STRING_WITH_NAMESPACE_CLASS_METHOD \
	--environment "Variables={AWS_SQS_QUEUE_NAME=$QUEUE_NAME, AWS_SQS_IS_FIFO=$IS_QUEUE_FIFO}" \
	--timeout $FUNCTION_TIMEOUT \
	--zip-file fileb://$PATH_TO_ZIP_FILE)

Once the function is created, it can be linked to an event source, such as DynamoDB. This happens by DynamoDB stream ARN. Once a record is inserted, updated or deleted in DynamoDB, the lambda function is called with this event.

aws lambda create-event-source-mapping \
	--function-name $FUNCTION_NAME \
	--event-source-arn $DYNAMODB_STREAM_ARN \
	--starting-position LATEST)

In case of function already exists, but its code has to be updated, this is done with update-function-code command.

aws lambda update-function-code \
	--function-name $FUNCTION_NAME \
	--zip-file fileb://$PATH_TO_ZIP_FILE)

Along with the code, function configuration can be updated as well with update-function-configuration command.

aws lambda update-function-configuration \
	--function-name $FUNCTION_NAME  \
	--role $ROLE_ARN\
	--handler $HANDLER_STRING_WITH_NAMESPACE_CLASS_METHOD  \
	--environment "Variables={AWS_SQS_QUEUE_NAME=$QUEUE_NAME, AWS_SQS_IS_FIFO=$IS_QUEUE_FIFO}" \
	--timeout $FUNCTION_TIMEOUT

Delete

In order to delete, then the event source UUID has to be obtained, this is done with list-event-source-mappings command.

aws lambda list-event-source-mappings --function-name $FUNCTION_NAME

Then event source mapping is deleted with delete-event-source-mapping command.

aws lambda delete-event-source-mapping --uuid $EVNET_SOURCE_UUID

And finally, the function itself is deleted with delete-function command.

aws lambda delete-function --function-name $FUNCTION_NAME

ECS (Elastic Container Service) operations

The full list can be found in aws ecs CLI reference page.

Create

Before doing anything with ECR, docker login command should be created with get-login, so docker is authenticated with AWS ECR. With eval function, the docker login command is directly executed.

eval $(aws ecr get-login --no-include-email)

Clusters are first listed, in order to evaluate if the application is already deployed.

aws ecs list-clusters

Cluster is created with create-cluster command. A cluster consists of services.

aws ecs create-cluster --cluster-name $CLUSTER_NAME

Existing task definitions are listed, to evaluate whether they are published or not. Task definitions are Docker configurations.

aws ecs describe-task-definition --task-definition $TASK_DEFINITION_NAME

Task definition is created with register-task-definition command.

aws ecs register-task-definition \
	--family $TASK_DEFINITION_NAME \
	--execution-role-arn $ROLE_ARN\
	--network-mode awsvpc \
	--container-definitions $CONTAINER_DEFINITIONS \
	--requires-compatibilities "FARGATE" \
	--cpu "256" \
	--memory "512"

$CONTAINER_DEFINITIONS is a Docker configuration which defines the task definition:

name=$TASK_DEFINITION_NAME,\
image=$IMAGE_TAG,\
environment=[\
	{name=AwsQueueIsFifo,value=$_IS_QUEUE_FIFO},\
	{name=AwsRegion,value=$REGION},\
	{name=AwsQueueName,value=$QUEUE_NAME},\
	{name=AwsAccessKey,value=$AWS_ACCESS_KEY},\
	{name=AwsSecretKey,value=$AWS_SECRET_KEY},\
	{name=AwsQueueAutomaticallyCreate,value=$AWS_QUEUE_AUTO_CREATE},\
	{name=AwsQueueLongPollTimeSeconds,value=$AWS_POLL_TIME_SECONDS}\
],\
logConfiguration={\
	logDriver=awslogs,\
	options={\
		awslogs-group=ecs/$SERVICE_NAME,\
		awslogs-region=$REGION,\
		awslogs-stream-prefix=ecs\
	}\
}

Before creating a service, existing ones are listed with describe-services command. Service has one or more running instances of a task definition. This is how service can scale.

aws ecs describe-services \
	--cluster $CLUSTER_NAME\
	--services $SERVICE_NAME

Creating a service is done with create-service command. $TASK_REVISION is the result of the register-task-definition command. $SUBNET_ID is returned by aws ec2 describe-subnets command.

aws ecs create-service --cluster $CLUSTER_NAME \
	--service-name $SERVICE_NAME \
	--task-definition "$TASK_DEFINITION_NAME:$TASK_REVISION" \
	--desired-count 1 \
	--launch-type "FARGATE" \
	--network-configuration "awsvpcConfiguration={subnets=[$SUBNET_ID],securityGroups=[$SECURITY_GROUP_ID],assignPublicIp=ENABLED}")

Updating of the service is done with a very update-service similar command.

aws ecs update-service --cluster $CLUSTER_NAME \
	--service $SERVICE_NAME \
	--task-definition "$TASK_DEFINITION_NAME:$TASK_REVISION" \
	--desired-count 1 \
	--network-configuration "awsvpcConfiguration={subnets=[$SUBNET_ID],securityGroups=[$SECURITY_GROUP_ID],assignPublicIp=ENABLED}")

Delete

In order to delete task definitions, they should be first listed with list-task-definitions command, so the task definition version is available.

aws ecs list-task-definitions

Removing of the task definition is done with deregister-task-definition command. Note that the command does what it says, deregister, it does not delete. The task definition is kept in history in status INACTIVE.

aws ecs deregister-task-definition --task-definition "$TASK_DEFINITION_VERSION"

Deleting the service is done with the delete-service command, the –force parameter also stops the running tasks.

aws ecs delete-service \
	--cluster $CLUSTER_NAME \
	--service $SERVICE_NAME \
	--force

In the end, the whole cluster is deleted with delete-cluster command.

aws ecs delete-cluster --cluster $CLUSTER_NAME

ECR (Elastic Container Registry) operations

The full list can be found in aws ecr CLI reference page.

Delete

The repository is created by Docker when the image is pushed to it. Repository and images inside are deleted with delete-repository command.

aws ecr delete-repository \
	--repository-name $REPOSITORY_NAME \
	--force

EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) operations

The full list can be found in aws ec2 CLI reference page.

Create

EC2 is responsible for security groups, which expose the service to the world by applying firewall rules. Before creating the group, it is first searched for presence with describe-security-groups command.

aws ec2 describe-security-groups

The security group is created with create-security-group command.

aws ec2 create-security-group \
	--description $SECIRITY_GROUP_DESCRIPTION\
	--group-name $SECIRITY_GROUP_NAME

Inbound rules are defined with authorize-security-group-ingress command, where ip_permission is a bash function generation the JSON for better reuse.

aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
	--group-id $SECURITY_GROUP_ID \
	--ip-permissions "[$(ip_permission $SERVICE_PORT)]"

Function generation firewall rule JSON, $1 is an argument given to the function.

function ip_permission() {
	echo "{\"IpProtocol\": \"tcp\", \"FromPort\": $1, \"ToPort\": $1, \"IpRanges\": [{\"CidrIp\": \"0.0.0.0/0\", \"Description\": \"Port $1\"}]}"
}

Subnets are listed with describe-subnets command. Each subnet has 3 availability zones.

aws ec2 describe-subnets

Finally, in order to report the IP of the deployed service, describe-network-interfaces command is used.

aws ec2 describe-network-interfaces --filters "Name=network-interface-id,Values=$networkInterfaceId"

Delete

A security group is deleted by name with delete-security-group command.

aws ec2 delete-security-group --group-name $SECURITY_GROUP

CloudWatch operations

The full list can be found in aws logs CLI reference page.

Delete

CloudWatch logs are created by default from the services. Deleting the logs is done with delete-log-group command. Note that I am using Git Bash on Windows and MSYS_NO_PATHCONV=1 is mandatory because the log group name starts with /.

MSYS_NO_PATHCONV=1 aws logs delete-log-group --log-group-name ecs/$SERVICE_NAME

Conclusion

AWS command-line interface provides tooling to handle all needed operations of the AWS services. It is the preferred way to manage services over the Web user interface.

Related Posts

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AWS examples in C# – introduction to Serverless framework

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Post summary: Introduction to Serverless framework and .NET code example of a lambda function with API Gateway.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository.

When speaking about Serverless there are two concepts and terms that need to be clarified.

Serverless architecture

Serverless architecture is an application architectural concept of the cloud, enables shifting more of your operational responsibilities to the cloud. In the current examples, AWS is used, but this is a valid concept for Azure and Google cloud. Serverless allows building and running applications and services without thinking about servers.

Serverless framework

Serverless framework is a toolset that makes deployment of serverless applications to different cloud providers extremely easy and streamlined. It supports the following cloud providers: AWS, Google Cloud, Azure, OpenWhisk, and Kubeless and following programming languages: nodeJS, Go, Python, Swift, Java, PHP, and Ruby.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda allows easy ramp-up of service without all the hassle to manage servers and environments. The ready code is uploaded to Lambda and automatically run. More detailed information and design considerations about AWS Lambda can be found in AWS examples in C# – working with Lambda functions post.

CloudFormation

AWS CloudFormation provides infrastructure as a code (IoC) capabilities. It defines a common language to model and provision AWS application resources. AWS resources and applications are described in YAML or JSON files, which are then provisioned by CloudFormation. This gives a single source of truth. The Serverless framework uses applications when creating the underlying AWS JSON CloudFormation templates. What Serverless framework is doing is to translate its custom YAML format to a JSON CloudFormation templates, which can be found in .serverless folder of DynamoDbServerless after the deployment to AWS is done.

Create a Serverless application

Before creating the application, Serverless needs to be installed. Installation is possible as a standalone binary or as a Node.JS package. I prefer the latter because it is much simpler.

npm install -g serverless

Creating an empty application is done with the following command:

sls create --template aws-csharp --path MyService

The command outputs a nice message:

$ sls create --template aws-csharp --path MyService
Serverless: Generating boilerplate...
Serverless: Generating boilerplate in "C:\MyService"
 _______                             __
|   _   .-----.----.--.--.-----.----|  .-----.-----.-----.
|   |___|  -__|   _|  |  |  -__|   _|  |  -__|__ --|__ --|
|____   |_____|__|  \___/|_____|__| |__|_____|_____|_____|
|   |   |             The Serverless Application Framework
|       |                           serverless.com, v1.61.3
 -------'

Serverless: Successfully generated boilerplate for template: "aws-csharp"

Apart from the default lambda project created by AWS tools, see AWS examples in C# – create basic Lambda function post for more details, the Serverless project is not split to src and test. It is a good idea to manually split the project in order to add tests. The configuration of Serverless projects is done in serverless.yml file. The default one is very simple, it states the provider and runtime, which is aws (Amazon) and dotnetcore2.1. The handler shows which method is being called when this lambda is invoked. In the default example, the handler is CsharpHandlers::AwsDotnetCsharp.Handler::Hello, which means CsharpHandlers is the assembly name, configured in aws-csharp.csproj file. The namespace is AwsDotnetCsharp, the class name is Handler and the method is Hello.

service: myservice

provider:
  name: aws
  runtime: dotnetcore2.1

package:
  individually: true

functions:
  hello:
    handler: CsharpHandlers::AwsDotnetCsharp.Handler::Hello

    package:
      artifact: bin/release/netcoreapp2.1/hello.zip

After the application is created, it has to be built with build.cmd or build.sh scripts.

Before deployment, AWS credential should be set:

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=KIA57FV4.....
export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=mSgsxOWVh...
export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-east-1

Deployment happens with sls deploy –region $AWS_DEFAULT_REGION command, the result of deployment command is:

Testing of the function can be done with sls invoke -f hello –region $AWS_DEFAULT_REGION command. Result of testing is:

{
	"Message": "Go Serverless v1.0! Your function executed successfully!",
	"Request": {
		"Key1": null,
		"Key2": null,
		"Key3": null
	}
}

Finally, the stack can be deleted with sls remove –region $AWS_DEFAULT_REGION command.

Use API Gateway

The default, Hello World example is pretty simple. In current examples, I have elaborated a bit on Lambda usage with API Gateway in order to expose it as a RESTful service. Two lambda functions are defined inside functions node, for movies and actions. Each has a handler node which defines where is the code that lambda function is executing. With events/http node and API Gateway endpoint is created. Each endpoint has a path and a method. Movies are using GET method, Actors are working via POST method. Both functions’ handler methods receive APIGatewayProxyRequest object and return APIGatewayProxyResponse object. The payload is found in Body string property of APIGatewayProxyRequest object.

Actors function is querying the Actors table. Mode details on the query and how it is constructed in BuildQueryRequest method can be found in Querying using the low-level interface section in AWS examples in C# – basic DynamoDB operations post.

Movies lambda function is getting the JSON document from Movies table. More details on getting the data can be found in Get item using document interface section in AWS examples in C# – basic DynamoDB operations post.

Actors lambda function has two more security features defined. One is an API Key defined with private: true setting. The request should have x-api-key header with the value which is returned by deployment command, otherwise, an HTTP status code 403 (Forbidden) is returned by API Gateway. See Run the project in AWS section in AWS examples in C# – run the solution post how to obtain the proper value of aws-examples-csharp-api-key API key. The example given here is not really scalable, more details on how to manage properly API keys can be found in Managing secrets, API keys and more with Serverless article.

The other security feature is lambda authorizer configured with authorizer: authorizer setting. The authorizer lambda function is not really doing anything significant in the examples, it uses UserManagement class to check if the Authorization header has proper value.  In the real-life, this would be a database call to get the user authorizations, not like in the examples with a dummy token. The request should have Authorization header with value Bearer validToken, otherwise, an HTTP status code 401 (Unauthorized) is returned by API Gateway.

serverless.yml

service: DynamoDbServerless

provider:
  name: aws
  runtime: dotnetcore2.1
  iamRoleStatements:
    - Effect: "Allow"
      Action:
        - dynamodb:Query
      Resource: ${env:actorsTableArn}
    - Effect: "Allow"
      Action:
        - dynamodb:DescribeTable
        - dynamodb:GetItem
      Resource: ${env:moviesTableArn}
  apiKeys:
    - aws-examples-csharp-api-key

package:
  individually: true
  artifact: bin/release/netcoreapp2.1/DynamoDbServerless.zip

functions:
  movies:
    handler: DynamoDbServerless::DynamoDbServerless.Handlers.MoviesHandler::GetMovie
    events:
      - http:
          path: movies/title/{title}
          method: get

  actors:
    handler: DynamoDbServerless::DynamoDbServerless.Handlers.ActorsHandler::QueryActors
    events:
      - http:
          path: actors/search
          method: post
          private: true
          authorizer: authorizer

  authorizer:
    handler: DynamoDbServerless::DynamoDbServerless.Handlers.AuthorizationHandler::Authorize

ActorsFunction

public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> QueryActors(APIGatewayProxyRequest request, ILambdaContext context)
{
	context.Logger.LogLine($"Query request: {_jsonConverter.SerializeObject(request)}");

	var requestBody = _jsonConverter.DeserializeObject<ActorsSearchRequest>(request.Body);
	if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(requestBody.FirstName))
	{
		return new APIGatewayProxyResponse
		{
			StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.BadRequest,
			Body = "FirstName is mandatory"
		};
	}
	var queryRequest = BuildQueryRequest(requestBody.FirstName, requestBody.LastName);

	var response = await _dynamoDbReader.QueryAsync(queryRequest);
	context.Logger.LogLine($"Query result: {_jsonConverter.SerializeObject(response)}");

	var queryResults = BuildActorsResponse(response);

	return new APIGatewayProxyResponse
	{
		StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.OK,
		Body = _jsonConverter.SerializeObject(queryResults)
	};
}

MoviesFunction

public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> GetMovie(APIGatewayProxyRequest request, ILambdaContext context)
{
	context.Logger.LogLine($"Query request: {_jsonConverter.SerializeObject(request)}");

	var title = WebUtility.UrlDecode(request.PathParameters["title"]);
	var document = await _dynamoDbReader.GetDocumentAsync(TableName, title);
	context.Logger.LogLine($"Query response: {_jsonConverter.SerializeObject(document)}");

	if (document == null)
	{
		return new APIGatewayProxyResponse { StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.NotFound };
	}

	var movie = new Movie
	{
		Title = document["Title"],
		Genre = (MovieGenre)int.Parse(document["Genre"])
	};
	return new APIGatewayProxyResponse
	{
		StatusCode = (int)HttpStatusCode.OK,
		Body = _jsonConverter.SerializeObject(movie)
	};
}

MoviesFunction

public async Task<APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerResponse> Authorize(APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerRequest request, ILambdaContext context)
{
	context.Logger.LogLine($"Query request: {_jsonConverter.SerializeObject(request)}");

	var userInfo = await _userManager.Authorize(request.AuthorizationToken?.Replace("Bearer ", string.Empty));

	return new APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerResponse
	{
		PrincipalID = userInfo.UserId,
		PolicyDocument = new APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerPolicy
		{
			Version = "2012-10-17",
			Statement = new List<APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerPolicy.IAMPolicyStatement>
			{
				new APIGatewayCustomAuthorizerPolicy.IAMPolicyStatement
				{
					Action = new HashSet<string> {"execute-api:Invoke"},
					Effect = userInfo.Effect.ToString(),
					Resource = new HashSet<string> { request.MethodArn }
				}
			}
		}
	};
}

UserManager

public interface IUserManager
{
	Task<UserInfo> Authorize(string token);
}

public class UserManager : IUserManager
{
	private const string ValidToken = "validToken";
	private const string UserId = "usedId";

	public async Task<UserInfo> Authorize(string token)
	{
		var userInfo = new UserInfo
		{
			UserId = UserId,
			Effect = token == ValidToken ? EffectType.Allow : EffectType.Deny
		};

		return userInfo;
	}
}

Conclusion

The Serverless framework is making deployment and maintenance of lambdas very easy. It also supports different cloud providers.

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AWS examples in C# – create basic Lambda function

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Post summary: Code examples on how to create AWS Lambda function in .NET Core.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda allows easy ramp-up of service without all the hassle to manage servers and environments. The ready code is uploaded to Lambda and automatically run. More detailed information and design considerations about AWS Lambda can be found in AWS examples in C# – working with Lambda functions post.

Create Lambda

Amazon provides Amazon.Lambda.Templates NuGet package which contains a lot of templates for Lambda functions. The NuGet package can be installed with dotnet new -i Amazon.Lambda.Templates. Once templates are installed, a new empty function is created with:

dotnet new lambda.EmptyFunction --name MyFunction

Two projects are created: src and test. The source project is with netcoreapp2.1 runtime and has reference to Amazon.Lambda.Core and Amazon.Lambda.Serialization.Json NuGet packages. It has only one simple function that takes a string input and converts it to uppercase. The test project has a unit test that tests this function.

Once the function is ready, it can be deployed to AWS Lambda and tested. In order to deploy, the Amazon lambda tools should be installed with: dotnet tool install -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools. Once the tool is installed, there should be an IAM role created with name MyRole for e.g. Before deploying the lambda, environment variable with AWS access information should be set:

export AwsAccessKey=KIA57FV4.....
export AwsSecretKey=mSgsxOWVh...
export AwsRegion=us-east-1

Then lambda is deployed with:

dotnet lambda deploy-function MyFunction \
	--function-role MyRole \
	--project-location src/MyFunction \
	--region $AwsRegion \
	--aws-access-key-id $AwsAccessKey \
	--aws-secret-key $AwsSecretKey

The function can be tested with:

dotnet lambda invoke-function MyFunction \
	--payload "Just Testing the Payload" \
	--project-location src/MyFunction \
	--region $AwsRegion \
	--aws-access-key-id $AwsAccessKey \
	--aws-secret-key $AwsSecretKey

The result is shown:

Amazon Lambda Tools for .NET Core applications (3.3.1)
Project Home: https://github.com/aws/aws-extensions-for-dotnet-cli, https://github.com/aws/aws-lambda-dotnet

Payload:
"JUST TESTING THE PAYLOAD"

Log Tail:
START RequestId: 3f1844e0-7437-4219-a391-621a55dec0e9 Version: $LATEST
END RequestId: 3f1844e0-7437-4219-a391-621a55dec0e9
REPORT RequestId: 3f1844e0-7437-4219-a391-621a55dec0e9  Duration: 925.38 ms    Billed Duration: 1000 ms Memory Size: 256 MB     Max Memory Used: 62 MB  Init Duration: 196.85 ms

The duration in the example above is 925.38ms, billed duration is 1000ms. This is the first run, the cold start as described in the previous section, which took almost a second for a very simple function. Next run the duration was 0.28ms.

The lambda can also manually be deployed and tested, see how in Run a “Hello, World!” with AWS Lambda article.

Listen to DynamoDB events

In AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post, I have described more about DynamoDB and its streams are very well integrated with AWS Lambda. In the current examples, the lambda functions are designed to process DynamoDB stream events. DynamoDB stream ARN (Amazon Resource Name) is defined as an event source for the lambda. Then the lambda receives DynamoDBEvent object, which is defined in Amazon.Lambda.DynamoDBEvents NuGet package. There is not much business logic in the lambda function, once the event object is received, it is read, logged to AWS CloudWatch with ILambdaContext, and its data is written to another DynamoDB table and to an SQS queue. For this purpose, references to AWSSDK.DynamoDBv2 and AWSSDK.SQS NuGet packages are made. In the example code, I have created SQS and DynamoDB proxies, so functionalities are isolated and only what is needed is exposed, these are DynamoDbWriter and SqsWriter. In both proxies, the configuration is done with Region, which is read by AWS_REGION environment variable. This variable is always present in the AWS Lambda environment. In this case, there is no need for authentication with AWSCredentials class, as everything happens inside AWS. The lambda function has two constructors, one is receiving instances of both proxies, if none are passed it instantiates them. An automatic dependency injection is not used with lambda. This constructor is used by the unit tests to pass mocked objects. The parameterless constructor is needed by AWS Lambda to instantiate the function class.

MoviesFunction

public class MoviesFunction
{
	private readonly ISqsWriter _sqsWriter;
	private readonly IDynamoDbWriter _dynamoDbWriter;

	public MoviesFunction() : this(null, null) { }

	public MoviesFunction(ISqsWriter sqsWriter, IDynamoDbWriter dynamoDbWriter)
	{
		_sqsWriter = sqsWriter ?? new SqsWriter();
		_dynamoDbWriter = dynamoDbWriter ?? new DynamoDbWriter();
	}

	public async Task FunctionHandler(DynamoDBEvent dynamoEvent, ILambdaContext context)
	{
		context.Logger.LogLine($"Beginning to process {dynamoEvent.Records.Count} records...");

		foreach (var record in dynamoEvent.Records)
		{
			context.Logger.LogLine($"Event ID: {record.EventID}");
			context.Logger.LogLine($"Event Name: {record.EventName}");

			var streamRecordJson = _dynamoDbWriter.SerializeStreamRecord(record.Dynamodb);
			context.Logger.LogLine($"DynamoDB Record:{streamRecordJson}");
			context.Logger.LogLine(streamRecordJson);

			var logEntry = new LogEntry
			{
				Message = $"Movie '{record.Dynamodb.NewImage["Title"].S}' processed by lambda",
				DateTime = DateTime.Now
			};
			await _sqsWriter.WriteLogEntryAsync(logEntry);
			await _dynamoDbWriter.PutLogEntryAsync(logEntry);
		}

		context.Logger.LogLine("Stream processing complete.");
	}
}

DynamoDbWriter

public interface IDynamoDbWriter
{
	Task PutLogEntryAsync(LogEntry logEntry);
	string SerializeStreamRecord(StreamRecord streamRecord);
}

public class DynamoDbWriter : IDynamoDbWriter
{
	private static readonly string Region = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("AWS_REGION") ?? "us-east-1";

	private readonly IAmazonDynamoDB _dynamoDbClient;
	private readonly JsonSerializer _jsonSerializer;

	public DynamoDbWriter()
	{
		var dynamoDbConfig = new AmazonDynamoDBConfig
		{
			RegionEndpoint = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(Region)
		};
		_dynamoDbClient = new AmazonDynamoDBClient(dynamoDbConfig);
		_jsonSerializer = new JsonSerializer();
	}

	public async Task PutLogEntryAsync(LogEntry logEntry)
	{
		var request = new PutItemRequest
		{
			TableName = "LogEntries",
			Item = new Dictionary<string, AttributeValue>
			{
				{"Message", new AttributeValue {S = logEntry.Message}},
				{"DateTime", new AttributeValue {S = logEntry.ToString()}}
			}
		};

		await _dynamoDbClient.PutItemAsync(request);
	}

	public string SerializeStreamRecord(StreamRecord streamRecord)
	{
		using (var writer = new StringWriter())
		{
			_jsonSerializer.Serialize(writer, streamRecord);
			return writer.ToString();
		}
	}
}

SqsWriter

public interface ISqsWriter
{
	Task WriteLogEntryAsync(LogEntry logEntry);
}

public class SqsWriter : ISqsWriter
{
	private static readonly string QueueName = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("AWS_SQS_QUEUE_NAME");
	private static readonly bool IsQueueFifo = bool.Parse(Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("AWS_SQS_IS_FIFO") ?? "false");
	private static readonly string Region = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("AWS_REGION") ?? "us-east-1";

	private readonly IAmazonSQS _sqsClient;

	public SqsWriter()
	{
		var sqsConfig = new AmazonSQSConfig
		{
			RegionEndpoint = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(Region)
		};
		_sqsClient = new AmazonSQSClient(sqsConfig);
	}

	public async Task WriteLogEntryAsync(LogEntry logEntry)
	{
		var queueUrl = await _sqsClient.GetQueueUrlAsync(QueueName);
		var sendMessageRequest = new SendMessageRequest
		{
			QueueUrl = queueUrl.QueueUrl,
			MessageBody = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(logEntry),
			MessageAttributes = SqsMessageTypeAttribute.CreateAttributes(typeof(LogEntry).Name)
		};
		if (IsQueueFifo)
		{
			sendMessageRequest.MessageGroupId = typeof(LogEntry).Name;
			sendMessageRequest.MessageDeduplicationId = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
		}

		await _sqsClient.SendMessageAsync(sendMessageRequest);
	}
}

Conclusion

As shown in the current post, it is very easy to create lambda function, deploy and run it. The current post shows a lambda function that listens to DynamoDB events and processes those events by writing into another DynamoDB table and SQS queue.

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AWS examples in C# – working with Lambda functions

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Post summary: Iintroduction to AWS Lambda functions.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda allows easy ramp-up of service without all the hassle to manage servers and environments. The ready code is uploaded to Lambda and automatically run. AWS Lambda automatically scales applications by running code in response to each trigger. The code runs in parallel and processes each trigger individually, scaling precisely with the size of the workload.

Main concepts

There are several terms that need to be briefly explained to get some understanding of what AWS Lambda offers.

  • Function – A code written in a programming language, for supported runtime, that does some computational work.
  • Runtime – Allow running of functions in different programming languages, supported languages are: Node.js, Python, Ruby, Java, Go, .NET.
  • Event – A JSON formatted document that contains data for a function to process, which is converted to object by the runtime and passed to the function.
  • Concurrency – The number of requests that your function is serving at any given time. If a function is invoked, meanwhile executing another task, then another instance is provisioned, increasing the function’s concurrency.
  • Trigger – A resource or configuration that invokes a Lambda function. This includes AWS services, applications, and event source mappings.
  • Event source mapping – A resource in Lambda that reads items from a stream or queue and invokes a function.

AWS Lambda applications

Lambda is the actual name of serverless functions in AWS. Along with the lambda functions, AWS supports also a concept of an application, which is a combination of Lambda functions, event sources, and other resources that work together to perform tasks. AWS CloudFormation is used to collect application’s components into a single package that can be deployed and managed as one resource. Applications make Lambda projects portable.

CloudFormation

AWS CloudFormation provides infrastructure as a code (IoC) capabilities. It defines a common language to model and provision AWS application resources. AWS resources and applications are described in YAML or JSON files, which are then provisioned by CloudFormation. This gives a single source of truth.

API Gateway

API Gateway is a fully managed service that makes it easy to create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs. APIs act as the “front door” for applications to access data, business logic, or functionality from backend services. It is very easy to create RESTful APIs and WebSocket APIs with API Gateway. It supports traffic management, CORS support, authorization, access control, throttling, monitoring, and API version management.

API Keys

API keys are the way to create usage plans, so APIs can be given to customers as a product offering with predefined request rates and quotas. A usage plan is created in AWS and it has a throttling limit, which is basically the request rate limit that is applied to each API key that you add to the usage plan. A quota is configured to the usage plan and applied to its API keys. This is the maximum number of requests with a given API key that can be submitted within a specified time interval. API keys can be provided to API Gateway in the X-API-Key header, this is what is shown in the current examples. Another way to work with API keys is with a lambda authorizer function, which returns the API key as part of the authorization response. API Keys can be created or imported from a file. Important is that API keys are not used to manage authentication and authorization.

Access control

Access control to a REST API in API Gateway can be done with several mechanisms:

  • Resource policies
  • Standard AWS IAM roles and policies
  • IAM tags can be used together with IAM policies to control access
  • Endpoint policies for interface VPC endpoints
  • Lambda authorizers
  • Amazon Cognito user pools

Lambda (custom) authorizers

In the examples given, lambda (formerly knows as custom) authorizer is used. API Gateway uses a dedicated Lambda function to do the authorization. More details on how to use authorizers can be found in AWS examples in C# – introduction to Serverless framework post.

CloudWatch

CloudWatch is a monitoring and observability service. CloudWatch collects monitoring and operational data in the form of logs, metrics, and events, providing a unified view of AWS resources, applications, and services. CloudWatch can be used to detect anomalous behavior, set alarms, visualize logs and metrics side by side, take automated actions, troubleshoot issues. By default, AWS Lambda is logging into CloudWatch. This makes it very easy to trace lambda function issues.

Design considerations

There are some specifics that have to be taken into consideration when using lambdas. One of the benefits of lambdas is to be cost-effective. Users can select what amount of RAM to set for the lambda function when it is created. This is done with –memory-size in aws lambda create-function command, see more in AWS examples in C# – deploy with AWS CLI commands post. The default value is 128MB and CPU is allocated proportionally. Sometimes defining too low memory can end up in unexpected performance issues. This should be monitored and optimized based on specific programming language and code. Lambdas are paid per 100ms execution time, so this also should be taken into consideration when tweaking the memory setting. In terms of cost-effectiveness, it is more expensive to add more RAM in order to optimize from 100ms to 50ms execution time, because 100ms on the higher amount of RAM is being paid. It has to be analyzed how much it makes sense for the end-users. Also, another consideration is that API Gateway adds additional delay in total time for the request. CloudWatch logs cost money, so awareness is needed about how much data a lambda function is logging. More pitfalls with more details using lambdas can be found in Serverless Pitfalls: Issues With Running a Startup on AWS Lambda article.

Still, the main consideration for lambda performance is so-called cold start. If the function has not been run for a while then it needs some time for the first request to go through. I’ve seen up to 4 seconds when experimenting, although I had not actually measured it. Theoretically, there is an option to ping your API at a certain amount of time to keep it “warm”. In practice, for heavy loads, AWS runs parallel instances of the lambda, in order to handle the traffic, and each new instance will have a cold start. More about cold start can be found in How long does AWS Lambda keep your idle functions around before a cold start? article.

Create lambda

Practical examples of how to create AWS Lambda functions are available in the following posts:

Conclusion

AWS Lambda is a very convenient and easy way to create running applications with minimal overhead. There are certain design considerations such as lambda cold start that has to be taken into consideration when deciding on lambda usage.

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AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB

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Post summary: Introduction to NoSQL, introduction to DynamoDB and what are its basic features and capabilities.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository. In the current post, I give an overview of DyanmoDB and what it can be used for.

NoSQL database

NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases (RDBMS). There are several types of NoSQL databases:

  • Key-value stores – every single item in the database is stored as an attribute name (or ‘key’), together with its value.
  • Document databases – pair each key with a complex data structure known as a document, usually, it is a JSON document. Documents can contain many different key-value pairs, or key-array pairs, or even nested documents.
  • Graph stores – used to store information about networks of data. Data is organized in the form of nodes and connections between the nodes.
  • Wide-column stores – store columns of data together, instead of rows. It can query large data volumes faster than conventional relational databases.

A very good article on the NoSQL topic is NoSQL Databases Explained.

AWS DynamoDB

Amazon DynamoDB is a key-value and document database that delivers single-digit millisecond performance at any scale. It’s a fully managed, multi-region, multi-master, durable database with built-in security, backup and restore, and in-memory caching for internet-scale applications.

DynamoDB tables

DynamoDB stores data in tables. The data is represented as items, which have attributes. When a table is created, along with its name, a primary key should be provided. The primary key can consist only of a partition key (HASH), it is mandatory. DynamoDB uses an internal hash function to evenly distribute data items across partitions, based on their partition key values. The primary key can also consist of the partition key and sort key (RANGE), which is complementary to the partition. DynamoDB stores items with the same partition key physically close together, in sorted order by the sort key value.

Secondary indexes

DynamoDB offers the possibility to define so-called secondary indexes. There are two types – global and local. A global secondary index is a one that has a partition, a HASH, key different than the HASH key or the table, each table has a limit of 20 global indexes. A local index is one that has the same partition key but different sorting key. Up to 5 local secondary indexes per table are allowed. Properly managing those indexes is the key to using efficiently DynamoDB as a storage unit.

Streams

DynamoDB Streams is an optional feature that captures data modification events in DynamoDB tables. The data about different DynamoDB events appear in the stream in near-real-time, and in the order that the events occurred. Each event is represented by a stream record in case of add, update or delete an item. Stream records can be configured what data to hold, they can have the old and the new item, or only one of them if needed, or even only the keys. Stream records have a lifetime of 24 hours, after that, they are automatically removed from the stream. Streams are used together with AWS Lambda to create a trigger code that executes automatically whenever an event appears in a stream.

Read/Write Capacity Mode

Amazon DynamoDB has two read/write capacity modes for processing reads and writes on your tables: on-demand and provisioned, which is the default, free-tier eligible mode. The read/write capacity mode controls how charges are applied to read and write throughput and how to manage capacity. The capacity mode is set when the table is created and it can be changed later. The provisioned mode is the default one, it is recommended to be used in case of known workloads. The on-demand mode is recommended to be used in case of unpredictable and unknown workloads. DynamoDB provides auto-scaling capabilities so the table’s provisioned capacity is adjusted automatically in response to traffic changes.

Understanding the concept around read and write capacity units is tricky. One write capacity unit is up to 1KB of data per second. If write is done in a transaction though, then the capacity unit count doubles. An example is if there is 2KB of data to be written per second, then the table definition needs 2 write capacity units. If the write is done in a transaction though, then 4 capacity units have to be defined. Read capacity unit is similar, with the difference that there are two flavors of reading – strongly consistent read and eventually consistent read. An eventually consistent read means, that data returned by DynamiDB might not be up to date and some write operation might not have been refracted to it. If data should be guaranteed to be propagated on all DynamoDB nodes and it is up-to-date data, then strongly consistent read is needed. One read capacity unit gives one strongly consistent read or two eventually consistent reads for data up to 4KB. Transactions double the count if read units needed, hence two units are required to read data up to 4KB. For example, if the data to be read is 8 KB, then 2 read capacity units are required to sustain one strongly consistent read per second, 1 read capacity unit if in case of eventually consistent reads, or 4 read capacity units for a transactional read request.

In case the application exceeds the provisioned throughput capacity on a table or index, then it is subject to request throttling. Throttling prevents the application from consuming too many capacity units. When a request is throttled, it fails with an HTTP 400 code (Bad Request) and a ProvisionedThroughputExceededException. The AWS SDKs have built-in support for retrying throttled requests, so no custom logic is needed.

Different programmatic interfaces

Every AWS SDK provides one or more programmatic interfaces for working with Amazon DynamoDB. These interfaces range from simple low-level DynamoDB wrappers to object-oriented persistence layers. The available interfaces vary depending on the AWS SDK and programming language that you use. For C# available interfaces are low-level interface, document interface and object persistence interface. In AWS examples in C# – basic DynamoDB operations post I have given detailed code examples of all of them.

Low-level interface

The low-level interface lets the consumer manage all the details and do the data mapping. Data is mapped manually to its proper data type. Supported data types are:

  • B – binary value, a MemoryStream
  • BS – list of MemoryStream objects
  • S – string
  • SS – list of string objects
  • N – number converted into a string
  • NS – list of number strings
  • BOOL – boolean
  • L – list of AttributeValue objects
  • M – map, dictionary of AttributeValue objects
  • NULL – if set to true, then this is a null value

If the low-level interface is used for querying then a KeyConditionExpression is used to query the data. It is called a query, but it not actually a query in terms of RDBMS way of thinking, as the HASH key should be only used with an equality operator. For the RANGE key, there is a variety of operators to be used, such as:

  • sortKeyName = :sortkeyval – true if the sort key value is equal to :sortkeyval
  • sortKeyName < :sortkeyval – true if the sort key value is less than :sortkeyval
  • sortKeyName <= :sortkeyval – true if the sort key value is less than or equal to :sortkeyval
  • sortKeyName > :sortkeyval – true if the sort key value is greater than :sortkeyval
  • sortKeyName >= :sortkeyval – true if the sort key value is greater than or equal to :sortkeyval
  • sortKeyName BETWEEN :sortkeyval1 AND :sortkeyval2 – true if the sort key value is greater than or equal to :sortkeyval1, and less than or equal to :sortkeyval2
  • begins_with ( sortKeyName, :sortkeyval ) – true if the sort key value begins with a particular operand. (You cannot use this function with a sort key that is of type Number.) Note that the function name begins_with is case-sensitive.

Document interface

The document programming interface returns the full document by its unique HASH key. The document is actually a JSON.

{
	"Title": {
		"Value": "Die Hard",
		"Type": 0
	},
	"Genre": {
		"Value": "0",
		"Type": 1
	}
}

Object persistence interface

WIth object persistency client classes are mapped to DynamoDB tables. There are several attributes that can be applied to database model classes, such as  DynamoDBTable, DynamoDBHashKey, DynamoDBRangeKey, DynamoDBProperty, DynamoDBIgnore, etc. To save the client-side objects to the tables, the object persistence model provides the DynamoDBContext class, an entry point to DynamoDB. This class provides a connection to DynamoDB and enables you to access tables, perform various CRUD operations.

Architectural constraints

Understanding DynamoDB nature is important in order to design a service that works with it. It is important to cost-efficiently define the table capacity. If less capacity is defined, then consumers can get 400 responses, the other extreme is to generate way too much cost. Another aspect is reading the data. DynamoDB does not provide a way to search for data. In any case, the application that used DynamoDB has to have a proper way to access the data by key.

Using DynamoDB in a service

DynamoDB can be straight forward used in a service, such as SqsReader or ActorsServerlessLambda and MoviesServerlessLambda functions, see the bigger picture in AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS post. An AmazonDynamoDBClient is instantiated and used with one of the programming interfaces described above.

Another important usage is to subscribe to and process stream events. This is done in both ActorsLambdaFunction and MoviessLambdaFunction. See more details about Lambda usage in AWS examples in C# – working with Lambda functions post.

More information on how to run the solution can be found in AWS examples in C# – run the solution post.

Conclusion

In the current post, I have given a basic overview of DynamoDB. It is important to understand its specifics in order to use it efficiently.

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AWS examples in C# – basic DynamoDB operations

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Post summary: Code examples with DynamoDB write and read operations.

This post is part of AWS examples in C# – working with SQS, DynamoDB, Lambda, ECS series. The code used for this series of blog posts is located in aws.examples.csharp GitHub repository. In the current post, I give practical code examples of how to work with DynamoDB.

Instantiate Amazon DynamoDB client

In the current examples, in SqsReader project, a configuration class called AppConfig is used. Its values are injected from the environment variables by .NET Core framework in Startup class. In order to work with DynamoDB, a client is needed. The DynamoDB client interface is called IAmazonDynamoDB and comes from AWS C# SDK. The NuGet package is called AWSSDK.DynamoDBv2. The concrete AWS client implementation is AmazonDynamoDBClient and an object is instantiated in DynamoDbClientFactory class and used as a singleton. RegionEndpoint is used to instantiate AmazonDynamoDBConfigAwsCredentials class extends the AWS’ abstract AWSCredentials and is used in order to manage the credentials.

DynamoDbClientFactory.cs

public static AmazonDynamoDBClient CreateClient(AppConfig appConfig)
{
	var dynamoDbConfig = new AmazonDynamoDBConfig
	{
		RegionEndpoint = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(appConfig.AwsRegion)
	};
	var awsCredentials = new AwsCredentials(appConfig);
	return new AmazonDynamoDBClient(awsCredentials, dynamoDbConfig);
}

AwsCredentials.cs

public class AwsCredentials : AWSCredentials
{
	private readonly AppConfig _appConfig;

	public AwsCredentials(AppConfig appConfig)
	{
		_appConfig = appConfig;
	}

	public override ImmutableCredentials GetCredentials()
	{
		return new ImmutableCredentials(_appConfig.AwsAccessKey,
						_appConfig.AwsSecretKey, null);
	}
}

AppConfig.cs

public class AppConfig
{
	public string AwsRegion { get; set; }
	public string AwsAccessKey { get; set; }
	public string AwsSecretKey { get; set; }
}

Creating tables

DatabaseClient class that uses and exposes just a few methods of IAmazonDynamoDB is custom created. It checks if the table is created and if it is not, then it creates the table. Afterward, it waits for the table to become in status ACTIVE. Movies and Actors tables creation is done in separate classes with CreateTableRequest, which needs the table name. KeySchema specifies the attributes that build the primary key for a table or an index. The attributes must also be defined in the AttributeDefinitions list. KeyType has two possible values – HASH and RANGE. In the case of the Movies table, there is only a HASH key, which is always mandatory and unique, this means no two items can have the same partition key value, the second insert overwrites the first one. In the case of the Actors table, along with the partition key, there is also a sort key with KeyType of RANGE which is complimentary to the HASH. I have not used secondary indexes in the current example, but DynamoDB provides this functionality. They can be defined with GlobalSecondaryIndexes and LocalSecondaryIndexes elements of the CreateTableRequest. A stream is defined with StreamSpecification element in the CreateTableRequest, its StreamViewType is NEW_AND_OLD_IMAGES. This means that in case of add, update or delete, the DynamoDBEvent, which is later used in a lambda, holds both the new values and the old values of the item. ProvisionedThroughput is used to set the read and write capacity mode. In the current example, it is 5 capacity units for reading and the same for writing. The ProvisionedThroughput is needed because the default BillingMode is PROVISIONED. It can be changed to PAY_PER_REQUEST and then ProvisionedThroughput should not be specified. A more detailed explanation of each parameter can be found in AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post.

MoviesRepository.cs

public async Task CreateTableAsync()
{
	var request = new CreateTableRequest
	{
		TableName = TableName,
		KeySchema = new List<KeySchemaElement>
		{
			new KeySchemaElement
			{
				AttributeName = "Title",
				KeyType = "HASH"
			}
		},
		AttributeDefinitions = new List<AttributeDefinition>
		{
			new AttributeDefinition
			{
				AttributeName = "Title",
				AttributeType = "S"
			}
		},
		ProvisionedThroughput = new ProvisionedThroughput
		{
			ReadCapacityUnits = 5,
			WriteCapacityUnits = 5
		},
		StreamSpecification = new StreamSpecification
		{
			StreamEnabled = true,
			StreamViewType = StreamViewType.NEW_AND_OLD_IMAGES
		}
	};

	await _client.CreateTableAsync(request);
}

ActorsRepository.cs

public async Task CreateTableAsync()
{
	var request = new CreateTableRequest
	{
		TableName = TableName,
		KeySchema = new List<KeySchemaElement>
		{
			new KeySchemaElement
			{
				AttributeName = "FirstName",
				KeyType = "HASH"
			},
			new KeySchemaElement
			{
				AttributeName = "LastName",
				KeyType = "RANGE"
			}
		},
		AttributeDefinitions = new List<AttributeDefinition>
		{
		   new AttributeDefinition
			{
				AttributeName = "FirstName",
				AttributeType = "S"
			},
			new AttributeDefinition
			{
				AttributeName = "LastName",
				AttributeType = "S"
			}
		},
		ProvisionedThroughput = new ProvisionedThroughput
		{
			ReadCapacityUnits = 5,
			WriteCapacityUnits = 5
		},
		StreamSpecification = new StreamSpecification
		{
			StreamEnabled = true,
			StreamViewType = StreamViewType.NEW_AND_OLD_IMAGES
		}
	};

	await _client.CreateTableAsync(request);
}

DatabaseClient.cs

private const string StatusUnknown = "UNKNOWN";
private const string StatusActive = "ACTIVE";

private readonly IAmazonDynamoDB _client;

public DatabaseClient(IAmazonDynamoDB client)
{
	_client = client;
}

public async Task CreateTableAsync(CreateTableRequest createTableRequest)
{
	var status = await GetTableStatusAsync(createTableRequest.TableName);
	if (status != StatusUnknown)
	{
		return;
	}

	await _client.CreateTableAsync(createTableRequest);

	await WaitUntilTableReady(createTableRequest.TableName);
}

public async Task PutItemAsync(PutItemRequest putItemRequest)
{
	await _client.PutItemAsync(putItemRequest);
}

private async Task<string> GetTableStatusAsync(string tableName)
{
	try
	{
		var response = await _client.DescribeTableAsync(new DescribeTableRequest
		{
			TableName = tableName
		});
		return response?.Table.TableStatus;
	}
	catch (ResourceNotFoundException)
	{
		return StatusUnknown;
	}
}

private async Task WaitUntilTableReady(string tableName)
{
	var status = await GetTableStatusAsync(tableName);
	for (var i = 0; i < 10 && status != StatusActive; ++i)
	{
		await Task.Delay(500);
		status = await GetTableStatusAsync(tableName);
	}
}

Different programmatic interfaces

In AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post, I have explained more details about the three different programmatic interfaces, that DynamoDB offers, a low-level interface, document interface, and object persistence interface.

Writing using the low-level interface

The low-level interface lets the consumer manage all the details and do the data mapping. Here is an example of how to create an Actor using the low-level interface. Data is mapped manually to its proper data type. In this case, the actor.FirstName and actor.LastName is assigned to the S property of the AttributeValue, which is a string type.

private readonly IDatabaseClient _client;
public async Task SaveActorAsync(Actor actor)
{
	var request = new PutItemRequest
	{
		TableName = TableName,
		Item = new Dictionary<string, AttributeValue>
		{
			{"FirstName", new AttributeValue {S = actor.FirstName}},
			{"LastName", new AttributeValue {S = actor.LastName}}
		}
	};
	await _client.PutItemAsync(request);
}

The full code is in ActorsRepository.cs.

Writing using the object persistence interface

With the object persistency interface, client classes are mapped to DynamoDB tables. The example given below comes from the original AWS documentation and shows explicit mapping. With DynamoDBTable the mapping to the table is created, then DynamoDBHashKey and DynamoDBRangeKey annotate the keys. With DynamoDBProperty a specific name can be given, so it is different from the table field name. Title is directly mapped to Title field in the database table. DynamoDBIgnore attribute ignores writing and reading this particular property to and from the table.


[DynamoDBTable("ProductCatalog")]
public class Book
{
	[DynamoDBHashKey]
	public int Id { get; set; }

	public string Title { get; set; }

	[DynamoDBRangeKey]
	public int ISBN { get; set; }

	[DynamoDBProperty("Authors")]
	public List<string> BookAuthors { get; set; }

	[DynamoDBIgnore]
	public string CoverPage { get; set; }
}

To save the client-side objects to the tables, the object persistence model provides the DynamoDBContext class, an entry point to DynamoDB. This class provides a connection to DynamoDB and enables you to access tables and perform various CRUD operations. The current examples are slightly different since Movie model is very simple, there are no DynamoDB attributes on it, so DynamoDBContext uses its default mapping features to map them. The movie has two properties, Title, which is a string and is the HASH key in the table and Genre, which is an enum, practically an integer.


public enum MovieGenre
{
	[EnumMember(Value = "Action Movie")]
	Action,
	[EnumMember(Value = "Drama Movie")]
	Drama
}

public class Movie
{
	public string Title { get; set; }

	[JsonConverter(typeof(StringEnumConverter))]
	public MovieGenre Genre { get; set; }
}

Since there is no DynamoDBTable attribute of the model, then DynamoDBContext is trying to map it by default to a table with the name Movie, but such a table does not exist. This is why DynamoDBOperationConfig is needed to map to the correct table name.


private readonly IDynamoDBContext _context;

public async Task SaveMovieAsync(Movie movie)
{
	var operationConfig = new DynamoDBOperationConfig
	{
		OverrideTableName = "Movies"
	};
	await _context.SaveAsync(movie, operationConfig);
}

The full code is in MoviesRepository.cs. Object persistence interface is a wide topic, full details can be found in .NET: Object Persistence Model page.

Querying using the low-level interface

An example is given for query request for Actors table that has FirstName as a HASH key and LastName as RANGE key. Important here is KeyConditionExpression, it holds the actual query. It is called a query, but it not actually a query in terms of RDBMS way of thinking, as the HASH key should be only used with an equality operator. For the RANGE key, there is a variety of operators to be used, in the example given equality operator is used as well. To add value to the value placeholder, :FirstName in the example, ExpressionAttributeValues is used. The dictionary key is the placeholder value, and AttributeValue is the value mapped to a specific value type, in the example, it is S, for a string. It is also possible to give placeholder value for the table field name as well, which is then replaced with the actual value in ExpressionAttributeNames dictionary, such as #LastName.

private static QueryRequest BuildQueryRequest(string firstName, string lastName)
{
	var request = new QueryRequest("Actors")
	{
		KeyConditionExpression = "FirstName = :FirstName"
	};
	request.ExpressionAttributeValues.Add(":FirstName", new AttributeValue
	{
		S = firstName
	});

	if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(lastName))
	{
		request.KeyConditionExpression += " AND #LastName = :LastName";
		request.ExpressionAttributeNames.Add("#LastName", "LastName");
		request.ExpressionAttributeValues.Add(":LastName", new AttributeValue
		{
			S = lastName
		});
	}

	return request;
}

The full code is in ActorsHandler.cs. More about DynamoDB queries can be found in DynamoDB API_Query page.

Get item using document interface

The document programming interface returns the full document by its unique HASH key. The table is accessed with public static Table LoadTable(IAmazonDynamoDB ddbClient, TableConfig config) and then the document is loaded with public Task<Document> GetItemAsync(Primitive hashKey). In current examples, a proxy class is defined, which isolates the IAmazonDynamoDB operations:

GetDocumentAsync


public async Task<Document> GetDocumentAsync(string tableName, string documentKey)
{
	var table = Table.LoadTable(_dynamoDbClient, new TableConfig(tableName));
	return await table.GetItemAsync(new Primitive(documentKey));
}

GetDocumentAsync

var document = await _dynamoDbReader.GetDocumentAsync(TableName, title);

var movie = new Movie
{
	Title = document["Title"],
	Genre = (MovieGenre)int.Parse(document["Genre"])
};

The document is actually a JSON.

{
	"Title": {
		"Value": "Die Hard",
		"Type": 0
	},
	"Genre": {
		"Value": "0",
		"Type": 1
	}
}

The full code is in MoviesHandler.cs.

Conclusion

In the current post, I have given practical code examples of how to do the basic DynamoDB operations in C#. This post is complimentary to AWS examples in C# – create a service working with DynamoDB post.

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